Past perfect - Quá khứ hoàn thành

had + past participle (PP) had + quá khứ phân từ (là dạng quá khứ của hiện tại hoàn thành)
had + PP (khẳng định) ⇒ When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home.
had + not + PP (phủ định) ⇒ They hadn’t finished their lunch when I saw them. (
had + Subject + PP (nghi vấn)Had the film ended when you arrived at the cinema?
Ở một thời điểm quá khứ, muốn đề cập hành động bắt đầu trước thời điểm này dùng Quá khứ hoàn thành
⇒ When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat.
⇒ Karen didn't want to go to the cinema with us because she'd already seen the movie.
⇒ At first I thought I'd done the right thing, but I soon realised that I'd made a big mistake.
⇒ The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn't flown before.

So sánh Present perfect - Past perfect

Present Perfect Past Perfect
⇒ Who is that woman? I've never seen her before.
⇒ I didn't know who she was. I'd never seen her before.
⇒ We aren't hungry. We've just had lunch..
⇒ We weren't hungry. We'd just had lunch.

Bài tập - Past Perfect

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