Past perfect - Quá khứ hoàn thành

had + past participle (PP) had + quá khứ phân từ (là dạng quá khứ của hiện tại hoàn thành)
had + PP (khẳng định) ⇒ When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home.
had + not + PP (phủ định) ⇒ They hadn’t finished their lunch when I saw them. (
had + Subject + PP (nghi vấn)Had the film ended when you arrived at the cinema?
Ở một thời điểm quá khứ, muốn đề cập hành động bắt đầu trước thời điểm này dùng Quá khứ hoàn thành
⇒ When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat.
⇒ Karen didn't want to go to the cinema with us because she'd already seen the movie.
⇒ At first I thought I'd done the right thing, but I soon realised that I'd made a big mistake.
⇒ The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn't flown before.

So sánh Present perfect - Past perfect

Present Perfect Past Perfect
⇒ Who is that woman? I've never seen her before.
⇒ I didn't know who she was. I'd never seen her before.
⇒ We aren't hungry. We've just had lunch..
⇒ We weren't hungry. We'd just had lunch.

Past Perfect

For each situation, write a sentence ending with never ... before. Use the verb in brackets.
1 The man sitting next to you on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
(fly) .

2 Somebody sang a song. I didn't know it.
(hear) I before.

3 Sam played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game.
(play) He .

4 Last year we went to Mexico. It was our first time there.
(before, there) .

Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets.
1 You went to Sue's house, but she wasn't there,
(she /go /out) .

2 You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before,
(it / change / a lot) .

3 I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn't come.
(she / arrange / to do something else) .

4 You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late,
(the film / already / start) .

5 It was nice to see Daniel again after such a long time.
(I / not / see / him for five years) .

6 I offered Sue something to eat, but she wasn't hungry,
(she / just / have / breakfast) .

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