Câu điều kiện

Kiểu Cấu trúc #
If + Present Simple, Present Simple
Nêu sự thật khoa học, sự kiện kết quả luôn đúng
If + Present Simple, will/can/may/shall + verb
(Đảo) Should + S + V, S + Will +V
Điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại, tương lai
If + Past Simple, would/could/might/should + verb
(Đảo) Were + S + to + V, S + Would + Vo
Điều kiện không có thật ở hiện tại
3 If + Past perfect, would/could/might/should + have + V3 (past participle)
(Đảo) Had + S + V3, S + Would have + V3
Điều kiện không có thật ở quá khứ
Tưởng tưởng ra điều mà nó sẽ không xảy ra sử dụng if + past (if we went / if there was / if you found etc.), tuy nhiên ý nghĩa không phải là quá khứ.
⇒ What would you do if you won a lot of money?
Đặt ra điều kiện mà có khả năng xảy ra thì dùng if + present
⇒ If it is sunny, I will go fishing.
wish + past cũng sử dụng để nói lấy làm tiếc điều gì đó không xảy ra. Sau ifwish có thể dùng were thay vì was
⇒ I wish I knew Paul's phone number.
if had chỉ nói về quá khứ. ⇒ If I'd known you were in hospital, I would have gone to see you.
Cũng dùng wish + had done với ý nghĩa tương tự: ⇒ I wish I'd known that Gary was ill.
but for + noun, would / could ... + V (câu đk 2) = nếu không nhờ ..., nếu không vì ...
but for + noun, wold / could ... + have + V3 (câu đk 3) = nếu không nhờ ..., nếu không vì ...
unless (trừ khi) thay được cho if ... not
⇒ Unless we leave now, we,ll be late => If we don't Leave now, we'll be late
⇒ I'll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late (if I don't have to work late).
as long as, so long as (chừng nào mà), provide (that), providing (that) (miễn là), On condition that (với điều kiện là ...) đều có thể dùng cho cho if
⇒ You can borrow my car as long as (so long as) you promise not to drive too fast.
⇒ Travell1ng y car IS convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park.
in case (phòng khi, cơ bản nó khác với if) ⇒ I'll draw a map for you in case you have problems finding our house.
in case + past để nói tại sao ai đã làm việc gì == because ⇒ I left my phone switched on in case Jane called.
in case of (nếu có): In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible.

Câu điều kiện

Put the verb into correct form.
1 I'd be very scared if somebody ```pointed`` (point) a gun at me. 2 I can't afford to buy a car. If I (buy) a car, I'd have to borrow the money. 3 Don't lend Amy your car. If she (ask) me, I wouldn't lend her mine. 4 If the computer factory closed down, many people (lose) their jobs. 5 I don't think Gary and Emma will get married. I (be) amazed if they did. 6 What would you do if you (be) in a lift and it (stop) between floors? 7 If somebody (give) me £10,000, I (have) a very long holiday.

Write sentences beginning If ...
1 We've decided not to catch the 10.30 train, (arrive too early) . 2 Kevin is not going to do his driving test now. (fail) If he . 3 We've decided not to stay at a hotel. (cost too much) If . 4 Sally isn't going to leave her job. (not / get another one) . 5 We've decided not to invite Ben to the party. (have to invite his friends too) . 6 I'm not going to tell him what happened, (not / believe me) .

Write a sentence with if ... for each situation.
1 We don't see you very often because you live so far away. If . 2 It's a nice book but it's too expensive, so I'm not going to buy it. I it if so . 3 We don't go out very often - we can't afford it. We more often . 4 I can't meet you tomorrow - I have to work late. If . 5 It would be nice to have lunch outside but it's raining, so we can't. We . 6 I don't want his advice, and that's why I'm not going to ask for it. If .

Put the verb into the correct form.
1 If (I / know) his number, I would phone him. 2 (I /not / buy) that coat if I were you. 3 (I / help) you if I could, but I'm afraid I can't. 4 We don't need a car at present, but we would need a car if (we / live) in the country. 5 If we had the choice, (we / live) in the country. 6 This soup isn't very good. (it / taste) better if it wasn't so salty. 7 I wouldn't mind living in England if the weather (be) better. 8 If I were you, I (I / not / wait). (I /go) now.

Write sentences beginning I wish ... .
1 I don't know many people (and I'm lonely). . 2 I don't have a computer (and I need one). I wish . 3 Helen isn't here (and I need to see her). . 4 It's cold (and I hate cold weather). .

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